The hole in the roof of the mouth caused by a cleft connects the mouth directly to the inside of the nose. Secondary effects of VPI include speech articulation errors (e.g., distortions, substitutions, and omissions) and compensatory misarticulations and mispronunciations (e.g., glottal stops and posterior nasal fricatives).

Submucous cleft palate (SMCP) can also occur, which is a cleft of the soft palate with a classic clinical triad of a bifid, or split, uvula which is found dangling in the back of the throat, a furrow along the midline of the soft palate, and a notch in the back margin of the hard palate.

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If the cleft does not affect the palate structure of the mouth, it is referred to as cleft lip.

It is due to the failure of fusion of the maxillary and medial nasal processes (formation of the primary palate). Cleft palate occurs in about one in 700 live births worldwide.

Cleft palate is a condition in which the two plates of the skull that form the hard palate (roof of the mouth) are not completely joined. Palate cleft can occur as complete (soft and hard palate, possibly including a gap in the jaw) or incomplete (a 'hole' in the roof of the mouth, usually as a cleft soft palate).

However, as they grow older and their social interactions increase, children with clefts tend to report more dissatisfaction with peer relationships and higher levels of social anxiety.

Experts conclude that this is probably due to the associated stigma of visible deformities and possible speech impediments.

Self-concept may be adversely affected by the presence of a cleft lip or cleft palate, particularly among girls.

Research has shown that during the early preschool years (ages 3–5), children with cleft lip or cleft palate tend to have a self-concept that is similar to their peers without a cleft.

However, adolescents with cleft palate/lip are at an elevated risk for developing psychosocial problems especially those relating to self-concept, peer relationships and appearance.