Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing this resource, we have taken steps to prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. It is Digitized by Google 10 INTRODUCTION Was lie in tlie Eastern Greek world before his transference to Alexandria in 274 ? * So Wilamowitz - Moellendorfl F, Legrand, Fritzsche, and others. (1) Trjpvaai TO de V€fip6s air^ V^X^'^ o Xeaaaa d^lris KOKTOV TVfif M (l K€v otto Kpordi JMOv. 185 sqq,), writing of Menalcas, Daphnis, and Polyphemos, and the memorial verses of the same poet are noteworthy : — Ola Ba be Koi rhv doihbv tv Evpvrrv Xov iro Xirjrai K^oi xd\K€iop dr JKOP VTT^ ir Xardpc^ Bimda fio Xird Copra do T^v, Trepi irdvra ^i Xijr Si/ p Tipjara ical iraaap pvop^pop Xo Xi^v. In Id, vii Theocritus relates how he, with Eucritus and Amyntas, went from the town of Cos to the * harvest-home ' of Phrasydamus and Antigenes in the deme of Haleis ^ Not half their journey done, they meet one ' Lycidas,' masquerad- ing as a goatherd (am6\v6fi{paf Digitized by Google 1 6 INTRODUCTION and by Hedylus, A, Pal. One theory of the origin has been discussed above, and rejected so far as an actual genealogy is con- cerned. i (on which see ad loc), there is no trace of connexion between Theocritus' work and Aratus* — and yet the Aratus of vii is Theocritus* dearest friend. C., and there at a safer distance dared to risk the dangerous allusion to the (dead) queen.

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30 Digitized by Google LIFE OF THEOCRITUS 27 The Hymn to Delos (Call, iv) deals with the story of Leto's wanderings in search of a resting-place before the birth of Apollo ; all lands refused her, save only Delos ; but from Cos she was held, not by the island itself, but by the yet unborn Apollo, for the island was set apart by destiny for the birth of Bebs 5XXof, Ptolemy II (see in xvii. The Hymn to Zeus is similarly full of recondite mythology, even of pedantry (IL 6-9), and again swerves off from its avowed object into praise of the king. The myths are introduced only to lead up to this real object and are overlaid with pedantic learning. 4-6 j Most of the instances where imitation is certain come from the later poems of Theocritus, and on the other side from Callimachus' Hymn to Delos (iv). The date of the Hymn to Zeus (which is only a thinly disguised Hymn to Ptolemy) is 275 (circa) ; slightly earlier therefore than Theocritus xvii. (Gercke, op, cit), probably earlier than Theocritus* poems. Now these are the two poems which Theocritus imitates in xvii, and yet how different the whole poem !

Digitized by Google LIFE OF THEOCRITUS 27 The Hymn to Delos (Call, iv) deals with the story of Leto*8 wanderings in search of a resting-place before the birth of Apollo ; all lands refused her, save only Delos ; but from Cos she was held, not by the island itself, but by the yet unborn Apollo, for the island was set apart by destiny for the birth of Seos SKXoi, Ptolemy II (see in xvii. The Hymn to Zeus is similarly full of recondite mythology, even of pedantry (IL 6-9), and again swerves off from its avowed object into praise of the king. The myths are introduced only to lead up to this real object and are overlaid with pedantic learning.

Legrand, itude aur Tkeocrite (Paris, 1898), though in an inconvenient form. To save space I have generally omitted mention of smaller corrections — spelling or dialect. In such a case it is easy to be dogmatic ; but dogmatism will not convince. The conditions xmder which this task is undertaken add to its difficulties, and responsibih'ty for errors and omissions rests with me alone. Digitized by Google CONTENTS PAGES INTRODUCTION 1-60 A.

My obligations to his work would be greater had it appeared two years earlier. It has therefore been necessary to deal at considerable length with grammatical as well as with textual difficultiea For the same reason the index has been arranged to afford a general synopsis of Theocritean usage and style.

t Korh yovp Tivas M6a'xos K(i Kovf A€Pos Oeo Kpi TOf a)P0pjda'9r] (so k., other MSS. They set forward in reality two things: (i) that by Simichidas Theo Gritus is meant as the son of Simichus; (2) that not Theocritus but another trep Sp nva t Saal t6p roiovrop dirb irarplov KKrjdrjpai dfr6 'Sifxixl^ov TOV n€pi KK€ovs IC. Miller's explanation (with narpiat Tov) is clear and satisfactory.: 'The ^*oi ic*' understood under Simichidas not Theocritus, but another, in whose name Theocritus speaks. 55.) (5) That Leonidas visited Cos is proved inter alia by A. 182 : an epigram on the Venus Anadyomene of Apelles, exhibited in the Asclepieion in Cos. Legrand would have Leonidas a Tarentine not by birth, but by adoption. But Legrand shows well that there is every reason to connect Leonidas with Crete. All have a note in common ; they are 'familiar rather than heroic,' like Thackeray's history; and like the Aristophanic Euripides, they— ot Kcm TTpnyfia T eladyti, of? She is Hhe expression of a form of love, of an impassioned situation, a personification of despair ' (Legrand, p. The circumstances of the poem are in no way original Love at first sight at a religious procession is a frequent theme in Greek literature {vide ad loc.)^ and was used by Calli- machus.

Q€6Kpi T0Sf 6 r Si V Povko\ik&v iroirjrrjtf ^vpa Koinrtos fjv rh yt POfj TTOTpos Sifux^'dov {lifj Lixov Ahrcus) tt)ff av Tos vfi£ ytpopapos fro XX^ff b6^r]9 ii T€Tvx! 2, note 8) (Sifuxtdov Tov Uepuc Keovf rmv *Opxpp Mvmv oi Tivf S Tro Xircuzff napa Kt^oig Tt Tvxq Koai Vf taken in connexion with xvi. r€p^v6v jrore Qrifiais, The words of the scholium have been so often misread that a careful examination of them should be made. Even granting for the sake of argument that the scholium as we have it is confused out of two separate scholia (so Ahrcns, ii. 516) and the words do refer to the poet, we do not get a Coan birth for Theocritus, but only Coan relations-in-law. Equally near are irarphs Btrov (Meineke), learpianov (Hiller), irarpiov ievov (ed.). There is even here a constant tendency to * aetiology ' ; to write merely to explain some obscure detail of custom and myth ; to introduce, with no regard to its fitness, a discussion on etymologies, archaeo- logy, and any point of criticism (A. XXV and Megara are again idylls of Heracles and Megara — and are remarkable for their form ; the narra Cion being given by the mouth, in the one case, of Heracles himself, in the other of Megara his wife. Now Simaetha is not a study of character in any particular class of life.

130), and lastly, that he was all his days a wanderer and poor. The other, of which we have examples in Theocritus* xiii, xxii, xxiv, XXV, Megara, (Moschus') Europa, set itself to form a new style of narrative poem— the * epic idyll * : representing in miniature some single scene in the life of the heroes. But we know that Philetas in his Telephus (the poem bears as title the name of the poet's father) wrote of the story of Jason and Medea, in his Hermes of adventures of Odysseus; that Hermesianax wrote of the love story of Menalcas, and Alexander of Daphnis. 41), finds Theocritus cold, formal, less expressive of features taken from the life (p. The whole of xv, xiv, he criticizes as failing to give, * as we would wish in a sketch of manners, an adequate and integral expression of truth, and as being a mere riaun U of events and conversation of which the minute detail pro- mised to be interesting* (p. (The same would apply, if true, to iv and x, and to some degree to xxii, xxiv, xxv, Megara.) It is true that in Herondas * we have a fuller— and at the same time more sordid— realism.

The critics of Alexandria divided themselves into two camps on the question of the poetical treatment of the old myths : the one— to which Apo Uonius adhered— tried to revive the old epic in its every detail, to build again the priftara aefivd, and paint the broad canvas of Homer. Digitized by Google LIFE OF THEOCRITUS 39 Most unfortunately for the history of Greek literature we possess the merest fragment of the works of Theocritus' elder contemporaries, Philetas, Hermesianax, Phanocles, Alexander (of Aetolia), and are thus deprived of what might throw an interesting light on the origin of the narrative poem as treated by Theocritus.

Usage guidelines Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. The upward limit may be at once reduced to 274 if we * Schol. ^ See Hicks and Paton, Inscriptions qf Co Sf Appendix I, by whom this theory is bolstered up by many dogmatic assertions. The writer would seem not to know of the supposed education under Philetas. That it is written under the direct influence of Philetas is unmis- takable. c.^ before Theocritus came under Alexandrian influence.

Public domain books belong to the public and we are merely their custodians. ' It is no more than coincidence that there was a famous doctor named Praxagoras at the court of Ptolemy I. Herondas, i and ii, the first being later than 267. Digitized by Google LIFE OF THEOCRITUS ii traces of a * bucolic' poetry, and striking parallels with Theocritus: e.g. 120.) Hermesianax the pupil of Philetas was distinctly a pastoral poet (see Susemihl, pp. Still is this influence the spoken or only the written word ? 296 ; 35- (4) There are parallelisms between Leonidas and Lycidas* song in vii : cf. If we accept Gercke*s view, as modified above, we can date the poem later, and at the same time get corroborative evidence for the theory that Theocritus retired to Cos after 270 B.

Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is allowed. 61-185 NOTES 187-378 EXCURSUS ON DIALECT 379-381 INDEX 383-391 Digitized by Google Digitized by Google ERRATA AND CORRIGENDA The editor regrets fcliat service in Africa prolonged beyond the term anticipated prevented him from seeing this book before it was published, and that he was unable to revise or correct it finally. Page vi,/or 1901 recul I9c» 6, line 16, for scanned read scorned 18, line 16, /or they read they were 20, note i,/or rest read the rest 21, line 26,/or Id, V. In this case the anonymous * native of Lycope,' vii. an Aetolian), will be some friend of Alexander's *, Aratus has generally been identified with the famous author of the ^aiv6fi€va on the ground of Scho L vi.