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- Poultice of leaves applied to upper abdomen used for expulsion of worms in children.- Leaves heated with those of Blumea balsamifera, Morinda citrifolia and Oroxylum indicum are applied warm to enlarged spleen.- Leaves used for fever, coughs, malaria, diarrhea and as tonic.
- CNS effects may include kratom psychosis, hallucinations, delusion, and confusion.
- Reported to possess morphine-like properties, antitussive, anesthetic, antinociceptive, analgesic. - Studies have suggested analgesic, sedative, antidiabetic, hypoglycemic, anti-inflammatory, antidepressant, antioxidant, antipyretic, antiproliferative properties.
- Study of Thai kratom extract composition from various parts of the tree yielded 40 structurally related alkaloids viz. 2015: 2015) ( stimulant effects; at high doses, sedative-narcotic effects.
mitragynine 66% (primary active alkaloids), paynantheine, speciogynine, hydroxymitragynine, speciocilitine, and others, as well as several flavonoids, terpenoid saponins, polyphenols and various glycosides. - Of the major alkaloids, mitragynine is a stimulant, and 7-hydroxymitragynine is sedative and analgesic acting primarily as an agonist at the u-opioid receptor. It inhibits electrically stimulated ileum and vas deferens smooth muscle contraction.
- Mitragynine (C22H31O5N), an indole alkaloid, was first isolated from the leaves in 1907.
- Study of alkaloid constituents of young leaves have isolated mitragynine as the major constituent (66.2%), together with analogues, speciogynine (6.6%), speciociliatine (0.8%), and paynantheine (8.6%).
- Long tern use causes anorexia, weight loss, insomnia, skin darkening, mouth dryness, frequent urination and constipation.
- A withdrawal syndrome may occur and manifest as emotional lability, hostility, aggression, aching muscles and bones, jerky movements of the limbs.
- At high dose, about 10 to 25 g of dried leaves, it causes sedative and euphoric effects and a narcotic analgesic (opium-like) effect.
Early symptoms are sweating, dizziness, nausea, and dysphoria followed by euphoria and a dreamlike state that may last up to six hours.
- Another indole, reported in the mid-90s, 7-hydroxymitragynine, C23H30, N2O5, is present in much lesser amounts, 2% of total alkaloids, but with the most potent opioid agonist and analgesic effect.