Iberville, commandant of the newly constructed fort, declared friendly intentions of the French by smoking the ceremonial calumet with the visiting dignitaries.

However, few really celebrate this aspect of their heritage.

Fifty years ago, in North Carolina especially, there were large groups of people who saw themselves as Black Indians. Franklin Frazier discusses them in depth in The Negro Family in the United States.

If ever a group of people was so incapable of living independently as to justify the enslavement of others more capable, it was these French trespassers.

Indians viewed them as children because they were puerile in their dependence on the mercy of others to supply them their daily bread.

After all, they were sworn to friendship through the calumet.

The exchange of gifts was not entirely one directional.He also talks about “,” areas of the country where large numbers of enslaved Africans had lived in the midst of a surrounding sea of Europeans and Native Americans.After the Civil War they gradually intermixed with the surrounding peoples creating enclaves of individuals of what Frazier calls “.” He identifies Ahoskie, North Carolina and Mahwah, New York as just two examples.Most lacked the knowledge or energy required even to gather nuts and berries or to scoop up the bountiful shellfish that proliferated in the waters around the Gulf of Mexico.Soldiers at the forts considered a good day’s work was getting drunk by noon and then talking an influential Indian into supplying women to satisfy their sexual appetites.As the French expanded their base of control, some Indian Nations simply packed up and moved, not wanting even to be near the French and their strange religion and habits.