Culter, Director of Land Stewardship for The Nature Conservancy; and, F. Convention centers, airports, and second-home subdivisions were planned. UThe Methodist Church, built in approximately 1880, played an important role in the community.

Certain individuals made special contributions of time and expertise. Numerous other people contributed immensely to the various sections of this report. In 1967 the sanctity of the' Virginia Barrier Islands was threatened when developers considered building a bridge connecting Smith'Island, in the south of the island chain, with the mainland.

The I Nature Conservancy gratefully acknowledges this assistance. Jack Fosque, Charles Handley, Melville Jennings, L. Johnson; Heathcote Kimball-, Bowdie-Lusk; Cheryl Mc Caffrey, Joseph Miller, Dick Moore, L. OFFICERS CHAIRMAN OF THE BOARD SECRETARY William D. The area has traditionally been an isolated cul-de-sac.- This fact, more than any other,-was responsible for the maintenance of a rural life style and the preservation of the Virginia Barrier Islands until the time they were acquired and-insured preservation by The Nature Conservancy.

Develop a list of the stewardship needs and procedures which offer maximum protection for the system. Determine agencies capable of accomplishing these goals and where ultimate stewardship responsibility should lie. Establish a preliminary management scheme accommodating preservation, research, education, and if appropriate, recreation. Determine the cost associated with this management scheme. Most homes had five or six rooms, but many were larger. Fruit from fig orchards and blackberry bushes was harvested in season. On the island itself, pine trees were cut and sold for use as mine timbers.- Hence, the islanders lived 'off the land' for many years, profiting from the abundant natural resources. (Possible hat the source is the Eastern Shore News and not Peninsula Enterprise.) 2/ Bowen, Ralph, 1.975. Several fellows worked a few hours a week on Civilian Conservation Corps maintenance projects but, for the most part, 'made more money by going in the bay'. They lingered with an understand- able hesitation to leave their island life.

Assess the impacts of potential regional growth, land-use, and recreational needs on the Virginia Coast Reserve. Assess the indirect socio-economic benefits of the Virginia Coast Reserve associated with preservation of the system. Determine popular opinion regarding the preservation of the Virginia Coast Reserve. Objectives of the Stewardship portion of the Virginia Coast Reserve Study a. The houses were located within a one mile area on the south end. Forty to fifty well-built houses were clustered to form the nucleus of the community. Potatoes and beans were also grown and pine needles were raked to provide winter storage for potatoes. To make a perfect day, and give a boy a case of nerves, a large whale surfaced just a short dista $e away, and blew a spray of air and vapor, and then water in the air.- Another natural resource harvested from the marshes and creeks was the Diamondback 2/ Terrapin. Even the Depression had little effect on this community, so well supplied with food re- sources. The people did not all move immediately after 1933.

The expansive marshes I behind the barrier islands are much incised and well flushed by tidal action.

The tidal range along the ocean front of the islands normally averages 4.2 feet but may reach nine feet or more during excessive storm surges. Nature Conservancy staff who contributed to producing this volume in- clude: Robert M. This acquisition triggered the ensuing chain of purchases which ultimately led to the formation of today's Virginia Coast Reserve, a chain of thirteen islands preserving this coastal resource. -29- Hog Islanders reminisce fondly of those years on the seaside isle when people were good friends and helpful neighbors. The school opened its doors around 1900 and had an enrollment of nearly 30 students during some years. When the automobile came on the scene, sev zal Hog Islanders purchased Model T Fords for Sunday afternoon drives along the beach The~ may have been as many as twelve of these along the pavement-like beach on a nice day. Victor Schmidt, Assistant to the Director of the United States Fish and Wildlife Service, Departient of the I Interior. The Nature Conservancy purchased the island from developers with funds provided by The Mary Flagler Cary Charitable Trust to insure the preservation of the island. A-minister fromthe mainland came on Sundays to preach, although it was once a two hour boat ride from Willis Wharf. 76-21164 TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ................................ Provide The Nature Conservancy with a clear image of its ownership and inholdings within the reserve system. Compile the legislation which pertains to the ownership of the islands, marshland and adjacent riparian and subaquatic rights to determine how it affects land stewardship. Establish a strategy for the further acquisition of'key lands within this island-lagoon system that are worthy of preservation from an ecological or strategical perspective. Objectives of the Ecosystem Description Section- a. Hotel and sum'mer resort business seemed promising. As one of them he lived the freest possible life, fared well and worked how he chose, when he chose - or not at all.! This photogr~aph was ;taken 6t Aom the leighthousne on ;the soulthehn end oj the "Zan~td jacing noorthwatd. Ajte,% the 1933 hwz~icane the 84oadwataet S(~hoot Howse on Hoag Iz~and was; barged ;to Oy.6te A, Vit~ginia where it was uzed az a c~am house. Mostof | the time if a person wanted bass he would just move to an old wreck an : was sure to get them.* It was a matter in those days to pick the kind and size you wanted, and we also knew when we arrived home, all of the fish had to be cleaned, washed in plenty of fresh water, drained, and salted for winter food. The flu epidemic of 1918 compounded problems on this island with no doctor. pr Opesty of CSC Library Copyright 1976 '- CM~~ ~ Library of Congress No. The objective of this investigation was to establish a base line of information that would yield an understanding-of the operationally significant factors governing the stewardship of the island system. Objectives were set for each portion of the research. Objectives of the Legislative Compendium, Title Search and Acquisition Priorities Section a. Hunting and fishing were excellent and hunt ,clubs had been established as retreats for the wealthy city dweller. His ideal of freedom was probably what led him to become a Hog Islander. -30-I The Vieeage oj Buoadwa~te A, Hlog Is~and, Vinginia v i~it appeated in the eaftty 1900's. George Doughty on his way to Roguels Island Sand to try to keep the people I off of his clam ground, The farther offshore we would go, the larger the fish would be. If we could get our bait below the trout, we could catch croakers, but that was difficult to do. The Ladies Aid of the church began in the spring to plan for the big Fourth of July dinner to be served beneath the tall pines on the by-road to the surf. This was also the winter when two Hog Islanders received notice of their World War I call to duty, or more accurately did not receive notice until the bays were no longer frozen. I ~~iii~ C~i p The'section of this report6dkiin4 with terrestrial vertebrates was compiled with the assistance of W. Br'ow, who-placed allspecies coll -cted on the islands in the U. Handley, Jr., Curator of the Division of Mammals of the U. National Museum; Lucille Stickel'and Ray Standell of the Fish and Wildlife Service; Patuxent '"Laboratory,' aid Cheryl Mc Caffrey. The present Virginia Coast Reserve has been traditionally used for pastureland, pirateering, waterfowl and shorebird market hunting, resort development, and homesites.